人造智能年代心理测试,人类如何跟机器人抢工作

按:
读完那篇文章,你将驾驭到社交技能在今后社会的基本点(恐怕是人类比机器人为数不多有优势的地点之一);看到有预知性的海外大商店包罗UTC、微软、AT&T等正想方设法培养和演练自身的职员和工人来抓牢竞争力;以及对协调的思维进程特别有意识能够升高学习能力(by
the way, 冥想是增进此元认知能力的有效途径之一)

开卷时思想:
怎么着用立陶宛共和国(Republic of Lithuania)语表达:

  • 想出
  • 令人类大相径庭
  • 分外重视
  • 晋升本人
  • 从不增大条件
  • 修订标准
  • 职员和工人流失
  • 胡萝卜加大棒
  • 提倡倡议

心理测试 1

一生学习

Cognition switch

What employers can do to encourage their workers to retrain

Companies are embracing learning as a core skill
Jan 14th 2017

  1. A STRANGE-LOOKING SMALL room full of vintage furniture—an armchair,
    a chest of drawers, a table—was being built in the middle of
    Infosys’s Palo Alto offices when your correspondent visited in
    November. Tweed jackets hung from a clothes rack; a piano was due to
    be delivered shortly. The structure was rough and unfinished. And
    that, according to Sanjay Rajagopalan, was largely the point.
    1)当你们的记者在十一月拜会时,Infosys的Palo
    Alto办公室正在修建1个充满古董家具的房间,一个扶手椅,一个带抽屉的衣橱,一张桌子。花呢夹克挂在衣架上;一架钢琴将便快捷运输来。整个结构是半成品、未成功的。根据Sanjay
    Rajagopalan的说法,那在非常大程度上正是要点所在。

印孚瑟斯(Infosys
Ltd)
,是一家总部在印度开普敦的一家中外技术服务公司。这家商店在二〇一三年龄资历源印度500强中列第①7名。Infosys在二十八个国家设有办公室并在印度、United States、中国、澳洲、United Kingdom、加拿大、日本等地存在研究开发宗旨。集团在跨越二十六个国家提供商业咨询、技术、工程及外包服务。

  1. Mr Rajagopalan is head of research and design at the Indian
    business-services firm. He is a disciple of “design thinking”, a
    problem-solving methodology rooted in observation of successful
    innovators. His goal is an ambitious one: to turn a firm that built
    a global offshoring business by following client specifications into
    one that can set the terms of its projects for itself.
  2. Rajagopalan先生是印度经济贸易服务集团的探究和安排性组长。他是“设计思想”的跟随者。“统一筹划思想”是3个消除难题的艺术,植根于成功立异者们的观测。他有贰个志向的靶子:把集团从服从客户专业而树立的海内外离岸外包业务的集团,变成能够为友好设定合同条款的商店。

** 设计思想(Design
Thinking)**是2个以人为本的消除难题方法论,透过从人的供给出发,为各样议题寻求立异消除方案,并创办愈来愈多的可能性。IDEO设计集团老板Tim·Brown曾在《华盛顿圣Louis分校经济贸易评论》定义:“设计思想是以人为本的布置性动感与措施,考虑人的供给、行为,也考量科技(science and technology)或商业的自由化。”
统筹思想,与分析式思考(analytical
thinking)相较之下,在“理性分析”层面是有相当的大差别的,设计思想是一种相比“感性分析”,并尊重“领会”、“发想”、“构思”、“执行”的进度。近日多数教学都将规划思想进度,浓缩成中国共产党第五次全国代表大会步子“同理心”、“需要定义”、“创新意识动脑”、“制作原型”、“实际测试”。
——来自维基百科(更加多介绍参考:
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%A8%AD%E8%A8%88%E6%80%9D%E8%80%83)

  1. Design thinking emphasises action over planning and encourages its
    followers to look at problems through the eyes of the people
    affected. Around 100,000 Infosys employees have gone through a
    series of workshops on it. The first such workshop sets the
    participants a task: for example, to improve the experience of
    digital photography. That involves moving from the idea of making a
    better camera to considering why people value photographs in the
    first place, as a way of capturing memories. As ideas flow, people
    taking part in the workshops immediately start producing
    prototypes with simple materials like cardboard and paper. “The
    tendency is to plan at length before building,” says Mr Rajagopalan.
    “Our approach is to build, build, build, test and then plan.”
    3)设计思想强调基于布置的行进,鼓励其帮衬者通过受影响的人的眼光看待问题。大约100,000名Infosys职员和工人参与了一体系的研究钻探会。第3个这么的研究探讨会为加入者设置了多个职责:例如,革新数字水墨画的经验。那涉及到从创设三个更好的照相机到思想最初为何人们以为照片有价值,作为一种捕捉记念的章程。随着想法不断产生,参与工作坊的大千世界立刻初叶用简短的材质(如纸板和纸)制作原型
    Rajagopalan先生说:“那种趋势是在构建发展行长期的陈设。
    大家的主意是营造,营造,营造,测试,然后布置。”

Prototype(制作原型):在安排流程之中,选用创立二个原型(Prototype)之意,透过1个现实的表现方式,能够视作集体内部或是与使用者联系的工具,并可经过做的长河让思考进一步显眼,是2个动手思考的进程。别的,能够由不难的草图呈现,进一步不断修补进而达到更健全的职能。在本阶段的产出结果,会作为测试之用。——维基百科

  1. That baffling structure in Palo Alto was another teaching tool.
    Mr Rajagopalan had charged a small team with reimagining the digital
    retail experience. Instead of coming up with yet another
    e-commerce site, they were experimenting with technologies to liven
    up a physical space. (If a weary shopper sat in the chair, say, a
    pot of tea on an adjacent table would automatically brew up.) The
    construction of the shop prototype in Infosys’s offices was being
    documented so that employees could see design thinking in action.

  2. 在帕洛阿尔托这令人猜忌的结构是另一种教学工具。
    Rajagopalan先生指示1个小团队重新设想数字化零售体验。他们不是想出另三个电子商务网站,而是尝试运用技术来扩展物理空间。
    (假诺2个疲乏的购物者坐在椅子上,例如,二个邻近桌子上的一壶茶会自动煮开。)Infosys的办公室的店铺原型的修建进程被记录,使职工能够看到设计思想运用在实质上中。

  3. Infosys is grappling with a vital question: what do people need to
    be good at to succeed in their work? Whatever the job, the answer is
    always going to involve some technical and specific skills, based on
    knowledge and experience of a particular industry. But with design
    thinking, Infosys is focusing on “foundational skills” like
    creativity, problem-solving and empathy. When machines can put
    humans to shame in
    performing the routine job-specific tasks that
    Infosys once took offshore, it makes sense to think about the skills
    that computers find harder to learn.
    5)Infosys正在化解多个最主要的难点:人们须求做什么才能在他们的工作中收获成功?无论什么样工作,答案总是涉及一些技术和切实的技术,那几个依照2个一定行业的学问和经历。但是在筹划思想方面,Infosys专注于“基础技术”,如创立力,消除难点的力量和同理心。当机器能够在进行平常工作任务(Infosys曾经把它们离岸外包)时令人类相形见绌时,去钻探一些电脑难以学习的技术就变得有意义了。

  4. David Deming of Harvard University has shown that the labour market
    is already rewarding people in occupations that require social
    skills. Since 1980 growth in employment and pay has been fastest in
    professions across the income scale that put a high premium on
    social skills (see chart).

  5. 爱荷华香槟分校大学的戴维德姆ing表示,劳重力市镇一度在奖励那些供给应酬技能的事情。自一九七八年来说,在全部收入范围中,分外重视交际技能的工作就业和薪给的压实是最快的。

  6. Social skills are important for a wide range of jobs, not just for
    health-care workers, therapists and others who are close to their
    customers. Mr Deming thinks their main value lies in the
    relationship between colleagues: people who can divide up tasks
    quickly and effectively between them form more productive teams. If
    work in future will increasingly be done by contractors and
    freelancers, that capacity for co-operation will become even more
    important. Even geeks have to learn these skills. Ryan Roslansky,
    who oversees LinkedIn’s push into online education, notes that many
    software engineers are taking management and communications courses
    on the site in order to round themselves out.
    7)社交技能对于广大工作都充裕重庆大学,不仅仅是对卫生保健工小编、治疗师和别的急需接近客户的工作的话。德姆ing先生认为它们的第②价值在于共事之间的涉及:能够急迅有效地分配任务的人们会形成更有效能的团队。要是未来的劳作愈来愈多地由承包商和自由职业者完结,那么合营力量将变得越来越主要。尽管极客也要学习这么些技能。负责LinkedIn推广在线教育的
    RyanRoslansky注意到无数软件工程师正在网站上学习管理和关联的教程来升级自个儿

Building a better learner

  1. Another skill that increasingly matters in finding and keeping a job
    is the ability to keep learning. When technology is changing in
    unpredictable ways, and jobs are hybridising, humans need to be able
    to pick up new skills. At Infosys, Mr Rajagopalan emphasises
    “learning velocity”—the process of going from a question to a good
    idea in a matter of days or weeks. Eric Schmidt, now executive
    chairman of Alphabet, a tech holding company in which Google is the
    biggest component, has talked of Google’s recruitment focus on
    “learning animals”. Mark Zuckerberg, one of Facebook’s founders,
    sets himself new personal learning goals each year.
    8)另一个在搜寻和保证工作中稳步主要的技艺是后续深造的力量。当技术以不足预测的主意改变,工作正在变得混合型时,人类要求能够获取新的技术。在Infosys,Rajagopalan强调“学习进程”——
    在几天或多少个星期内从八个标题变更为一个好主意的经过。Alphabet(谷歌(谷歌)是这家技术控制股份集团的最大的组成都部队分)的执行主席埃里克•施密特(埃里克Sc​​hmidt)谈到谷歌的“学习动物”的选聘。
    推特(TWTR.US)的奠基者马克·扎克Berg(马克Zuckerberg)每年都设定自身新的私有学习目的

  2. An emphasis on learning has long been a hallmark of United
    Technologies (UTC), a conglomerate whose businesses include Pratt &
    Whitney, a maker of aircraft engines, and Otis, a lift manufacturer.
    Since 1996 UTC has been running a programme under which its
    employees can take part-time degrees and have tuition fees of up to
    $12,000 a year paid for them, no strings attached. Employers
    often balk at training staff because they might leave for
    rivals, taking their expensively gained skills with them. But Gail
    Jackson, the firm’s vice-president of human resources, takes a
    different view. “We want people who are intellectually curious,” she
    says. “It is better to train and have them leave than not to train
    and have them stay.”
    9)强调学习一直是共同技术(UTC)的申明,联合技术集团的工作包涵飞机斯特林发动机创建商Pratt&惠特尼和电梯创造商Otis。自一九九六年的话,UTC一贯在实施二个布署,遵照该布署,职员和工人能够获取专职学位,每年开销高达1三千美金的学习话费,从未有过增大条件。雇主平日拒绝创设工作职员,因为她们唯恐离开去竞争对手那里,把他们花大价格得到的技艺带走。不过,该公司人力财富副总经理盖尔·杰克逊则持差异见解。
    “我们期望在智力上有好奇心的人,”她说。
    “最好培养和练习他们正是他们有天离开,好过于不培养和锻炼而让他们留下。”

  3. Such attitudes are becoming more common. When Satya Nadella took
    over as boss of Microsoft in 2014, he drew on the work of Carol
    Dweck, a psychology professor at Stanford University, to push the
    firm’s culture in a new direction. Ms Dweck divides students into
    two camps: those who think that ability is innate and fixed
    (dampening motivation to learn) and those who believe that
    abilities can be improved through learning. This “growth mindset” is
    what the firm is trying to encourage. It has amended its
    performance-review criteria to include an appraisal of how
    employees have learned from others and then applied that knowledge.
    It has also set up an internal portal that integrates Lynda, the
    training provider bought by LinkedIn (which Microsoft itself is now
    buying).
    10)那种姿态尤为常见。当Satya
    Nadella在二零一四年接手微软的小业主位卯时,他援引了清华心思学助教CarolDweck的创作,将公司的学识推向新的势头。
    Dweck女士将学员分成多个类:这一个认为能力是天然的和固化的(平抑的学习动机)和那么些相信能力可以由此学习进步的人。那种“成长心态”是这家集团正在努力鼓励的。微软修订了其绩效考核标准,参与了对职员和工人怎样从外人那里学习知识并利用该文化的评估。它还兴办了2当中间派系,集成了由LinkedIn购买的扶植提供商Lynda(微软自己现在正值购买LinkedIn)。

  4. AT&T, a telecoms and media firm with around 300,000 employees, faces
    two big workforce problems: rapidly changing skills requirements in
    an era of big data and cloud computing, and constant employee
    churn that leaves the company having to fill 50,000 jobs a year.
    Recruiting from outside is difficult, expensive and liable to cause
    ill-feeling among existing staff. The firm’s answer is an ambitious
    plan to reskill its own people.
    11)AT&T是一家拥有大体30万职工的电信和传播媒介集团,面临两大劳引力方面包车型客车难题:大数额和云总结时期快速生成的技艺供给,以及职员和工人不断的流失,使公司只可以每年补偿50,000个办事空缺。从表面招聘是费力的、昂贵的,并且恐怕造成现有工作职员的不适。这家店铺的答案是制订3个心胸的布置来重复培育自身的雇员

  5. Employees each have a career profile that they maintain
    themselves, which contains a record of their skills and training.
    They also have access to a database called “career intelligence”,
    which shows them the jobs on offer within the company, what skills
    they require and how much demand there is for them. The firm has
    developed short courses called nanodegrees with Udacity, the MOOC
    provider, and is also working with universities on developing course
    curriculums. Employees work in their own time to build their skills.
    But AT&T applies both carrot and stick to encourage them, by way
    of generous help with tuition fees (totalling $30m in 2015) for
    those who take courses and negative appraisal ratings for those who
    show no interest.
    12)每一个职员和工人都有二个祥和存在的生意档案,个中包蕴他们的技艺和培养记录。他们还是能访问五个名为“职业智能”的数据库,下边显示公司内提供的做事,他们供给什么技巧和对他们的技巧须求有多少。该铺面现已与MOOC提供商Udacity开发了名为nanodegrees的短时间课程,并与高校合作开发各样课程。职员和工人在祥和的业余时间来上学技术。但AT&T
    动用胡萝卜加大棒来鼓励他们,通过慷慨地援救学习成本(二零一六年累计三千万卢比)给那么些上课的员工,对那1个从没趣味的职员和工人给予负面评论等级。

  6. As continued learning becomes a corporate priority, two questions
    arise. First, is it possible for firms to screen candidates and
    employees on the basis of curiosity, or what psychologists call
    “need for cognition”? Getting through university is one very rough
    proxy for
    this sort of foundational skill, which helps explain why
    so many employers stipulate degrees for jobs which on the face
    of it do not require them.
    13)随着一连上学变成公司的预先事项,八个难题应运而生了。首先,公司是或不是有大概遵照好奇心或心绪学家所说的“认知须要”来测试面试者和职工?高校毕业是兼具那种基础技术的3个百般简便的表示,那促进解释为啥如此多雇主规定办事所需的学位,固然表面上看并不须求这么些学位。

Curiouser and curiouser

  1. More data-driven approaches are also being tried. Manpower, a
    human-resources consultancy, is currently running trials on an
    app that will score individuals on their “learnability”. Knack,
    a startup, offers a series of apps that are, in effect, gamified
    psychological tests. In Dashi Dash, for example, participants play
    the part of waiters and are asked to take the orders of customers on
    the basis of (often hard to read) expressions. As more and more
    customers arrive, the job of managing the workflow gets tougher.
    Every decision and every minute change in strategy is captured as a
    data point and sent to the cloud, where machine-learning algorithms
    analyse players’ aptitudes against a reference population of 25,000
    people. An ability to read expressions wins points for empathy; a
    decision always to serve customers in the order in which they arrive
    in the game, for example, might serve as an indicator of
    integrity
    . Intellectual curiosity is one of the traits that Knack
    tests for.
    14)更加多的数码驱动方法正在被尝试着。
    Manpower是一家里人力能源咨询集团,近期正在对四个应用程序进行测试,该应用程序将对个体的“学习能力”举办业评比分。
    Knack,一个创业公司,提供了一层层的应用程序,实际上是游戏化的心绪测试。例如,在Dashi
    Dash,出席者扮演服务员的剧中人物,并被要求在(经常很难读懂的)表情的底蕴上接受客户的订单。随着更加多的客户到达,管理工科作流的办事变得更为辛勤。战略中的各个表决和每一秒钟变化都被抓走为1个数据点,并被发送到云端,在那之中机械学习算法以25,000人的多少为参考,分析玩家的能力。读表情的能力得到同情这一项的分;例如,总是遵照客户在戏耍中到达的逐一为他们提供劳务能够用作诚实的目标。知识上的好奇心也是Knack测试的特质之一。

  2. The second question is whether it is possible to train people to
    learn. Imaging techniques are helping unlock what goes on in the
    mind of someone who is curious. In a study published in 2014 in
    Neuron, a neuroscience journal, participants were first asked to
    rate their curiosity to learn the answers to various questions.
    Later they were shown answers to those questions, as well as a
    picture of a stranger’s face; finally, they were tested on their
    recall of the answers and given a face-recognition test. Greater
    curiosity led to better retention on both tests; brain scans
    showed increased activity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, a
    reward pathway, and in the hippocampus, a region that matters for
    forming new memories.

  3. 首个难点是是还是不是能够作育人们学习。成像技术正在帮助解锁有好奇心的人脑子里在想怎么样。在2016年在神经科学杂志Neuron上公布的一项切磋中,参预者首先被供给评价他们念书各类难题的答案的好奇心。接着向他们来得了这么些题材的答案,以及三个第1者的脸的图样;最终,给她们进行回想答案的测试,并展开面部识别测试。更大的好奇心导致三个测试中展现出更好的记忆力;脑扫描突显在中脑边缘多巴胺系统(大脑奖励途径)和海马体(一种对形成新记念有首要意义的区域)中的活性增加。

  4. It is too early to know whether traits such as curiosity can be
    taught. But it is becoming easier to turn individuals into more
    effective learners by making them more aware of their own thought
    processes
    . Hypotheses about what works in education and learning
    have become easier to test because of the rise of online learning.
    MIT has launched an initiative to conduct interdisciplinary
    research into the mechanics of learning and to apply the conclusions
    to its own teaching, both online and offline. It uses its own online
    platforms, including a MOOC co-founded with Harvard University
    called edX, to test ideas. When MOOC participants were required to
    write down their plans for undertaking a course, for example, they
    were 29% more likely to complete the course than a control group who
    did not have to do so.
    16)未来还不精通好奇心那样的特质能或不可能被授课。不过,通过使人们进一步意识到祥和的思维进程,将她们成为更实用的学习者变得尤其简单。由于在线学习的起来,使得教育和上学中起效果的只要变得更便于被测试。清华大学倡导了一项倡议,对上学机制举办跨学科学切磋究,并将敲定应用于其在线和离线的教学。它使用自身的在线平台,包含与佐治亚理工大学联袂创设的二个MOOC——edX来测试想法。例如,当MOOC加入者被供给写下她们的课程计划,他们形成课程的可能性比平素不如此做的控制组多出29%。

  5. Information about effective learning strategies can be personalised,
    too. The Open University, a British distance-learning institution,
    already uses dashboards to monitor individual students’ online
    behaviour and performance. Knewton, whose platform captures data on
    10m current American students, recommends personalised content to
    them. Helping people to be more aware of their own thought
    processes
    when they learn makes it more likely they can acquire
    new skills later in life.
    17)有效学习策略的新闻也能够特性化。United Kingdom远程学习机关“开放大学”已经接纳仪表板来监督学生个人的在线作为和显示。
    Knewton,其平台捕获一千万脚下United States学生的数码,向他们引进性格化内容。支持人们在上学时更领悟本人的思维进程使她们更有恐怕在此后的生活中赢得新的技术。
    This article appeared in the Special report section of the print
    edition under the headline “Cognition switch”

原版的书文出处:法学人网站

译者:安东Anton

本译文仅供个人研习、欣赏语言之用,谢绝任何转发及用于其余商业用途。本译文所涉法律后果均由本人承担。本身同意简书平台在接获有关作品权人的文告后,删除小说。

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