事在人为智能时代,人类如何跟机器人抢工作

准:
读了就篇稿子,你拿了解及社交技能在未来社会之严重性(也许是人类比机器人为数不多有优势的地方有);看到有前瞻性的海外很企业包UTC、微软、AT&T等正想方设法培训好之员工来增进竞争力;以及针对性自己之思维过程更加有意识能够提升学习能力(by
the way, 冥想是加强此元认知能力的有效途径之一)

读书时考虑:
什么用英语表述:

  • 想出
  • 于人类相形见绌
  • 非常重视
  • 升级自己
  • 从不增大条件
  • 修订标准
  • 职工没有
  • 红萝卜加大棒
  • 倡议倡议

心理测试 1

一生学习

Cognition switch

What employers can do to encourage their workers to retrain

Companies are embracing learning as a core skill
Jan 14th 2017

  1. A STRANGE-LOOKING SMALL room full of vintage furniture—an armchair,
    a chest of drawers, a table—was being built in the middle of
    Infosys’s Palo Alto offices when your correspondent visited in
    November. Tweed jackets hung from a clothes rack; a piano was due to
    be delivered shortly. The structure was rough and unfinished. And
    that, according to Sanjay Rajagopalan, was largely the point.
    1)当你们的记者在11月走访时,Infosys的Palo
    Alto办公室正在修建一个满古董家具的房,一个扶手椅,一个带来抽屉的衣柜,一摆放桌子。花呢夹克挂在衣架上;一绑架钢琴将飞以来。整个结构是半成品、未到位的。根据Sanjay
    Rajagopalan的说法,这当雅酷程度上多亏要所在。

印孚瑟斯(Infosys
Ltd)
,是同一寒总部在印度班加罗尔底一样下中外技术劳务号。这家店于2011年财印度500胜过被列第27名叫。Infosys在29个国家在办公室并在印度、美国、中国、澳大利亚、英国、加拿大、日本等于地存研发核心。公司在跨30单国提供买卖咨询、技术、工程及外包服务。

  1. Mr Rajagopalan is head of research and design at the Indian
    business-services firm. He is a disciple of “design thinking”, a
    problem-solving methodology rooted in observation of successful
    innovators. His goal is an ambitious one: to turn a firm that built
    a global offshoring business by following client specifications into
    one that can set the terms of its projects for itself.
  2. Rajagopalan先生是印度商业服务公司的研究和统筹主管。他是“设计思想”的拥护者。“筹思想”是一个缓解问题的法门,植根于成功创新者们的观察。他出一个雄心勃勃的靶子:把商家从本客户标准而建立之五洲离岸外包业务的店,变成可以吧投机设定合同条款的号。

** 设计思想(Design
Thinking)**大凡一个因为食指吗按照的化解问题方法论,透过从口之急需出发,为各种议题寻求创新解决方案,并创办更多的可能性。IDEO设计公司总裁蒂姆·布朗曾于《哈佛商业评论》定义:“设计思想是为人数吧遵循的规划动感同法,考虑人口之要求、行为,也考量科技要买卖的趋势。”
计划思想,与分析式思考(analytical
thinking)相较之下,在“理性分析”层面是发出老非常异之,设计思想是相同种植较为“感性分析”,并注重“了解”、“发想”、“构思”、“执行”的历程。目前大部分教学还用设计思想过程,浓缩成五挺步子“同理心”、“需求定义”、“创意动脑”、“制作原型”、“实际测试”。
——来自维基百科(更多介绍参考:
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E8%A8%AD%E8%A8%88%E6%80%9D%E8%80%83)

  1. Design thinking emphasises action over planning and encourages its
    followers to look at problems through the eyes of the people
    affected. Around 100,000 Infosys employees have gone through a
    series of workshops on it. The first such workshop sets the
    participants a task: for example, to improve the experience of
    digital photography. That involves moving from the idea of making a
    better camera to considering why people value photographs in the
    first place, as a way of capturing memories. As ideas flow, people
    taking part in the workshops immediately start producing
    prototypes with simple materials like cardboard and paper. “The
    tendency is to plan at length before building,” says Mr Rajagopalan.
    “Our approach is to build, build, build, test and then plan.”
    3)设计思想强调基于计划之行路,鼓励其追随者通过叫影响之人的见对问题。大约100,000名Infosys员工参加了千篇一律多级的研讨会。第一个如此的研讨会也参与者设置了一个任务:例如,改善数字摄影的经验。这干到打制作一个再次好的照相机及想最初为何人们觉得像发价,作为一如既往种捕捉记忆之计。随着想法不断产生,参加工作坊的人们及时开始用简短的材料(如纸板和纸)制作原型
    Rajagopalan先生说:“这种势头是以构建发展行长时间的计划。
    我们的法门是构建,构建,构建,测试,然后计划。”

Prototype(制作原型):在规划流程中,采用打一个原型(Prototype)之完全,透过一个具体的展现方式,可以当作集体里或与使用者联系的工具,并不过透过做的长河为想进一步明显,是一个入手思考的进程。此外,可以由简单的草图呈现,进一步不断修整进而达到更完善的法力。在照号的产出结果,会作为测试的故。——维基百科

  1. That baffling structure in Palo Alto was another teaching tool.
    Mr Rajagopalan had charged a small team with reimagining the digital
    retail experience. Instead of coming up with yet another
    e-commerce site, they were experimenting with technologies to liven
    up a physical space. (If a weary shopper sat in the chair, say, a
    pot of tea on an adjacent table would automatically brew up.) The
    construction of the shop prototype in Infosys’s offices was being
    documented so that employees could see design thinking in action.

  2. 每当帕洛阿尔托那令人困惑的组织是另外一样栽教学工具。
    Rajagopalan先生指示一个小团队重新设想数字化零售体验。他们无是想出另一个电子商务网站,而是尝试以技巧来多物理空间。
    (如果一个疲乏之购物者坐于椅上,例如,一个相邻桌子上之一模一样壶茶会自动煮开。)Infosys的办公的店铺原型的打过程被记录,使员工好见见设计思想运用在实际上被。

  3. Infosys is grappling with a vital question: what do people need to
    be good at to succeed in their work? Whatever the job, the answer is
    always going to involve some technical and specific skills, based on
    knowledge and experience of a particular industry. But with design
    thinking, Infosys is focusing on “foundational skills” like
    creativity, problem-solving and empathy. When machines can put
    humans to shame in
    performing the routine job-specific tasks that
    Infosys once took offshore, it makes sense to think about the skills
    that computers find harder to learn.
    5)Infosys正在解决一个要害的问题:人们用举行什么才会于他们的劳作面临取成功?无论什么工作,答案总是涉及部分艺同现实的技巧,这些根据一个特定行业之学识以及更。但是在设计思想方面,Infosys专注于“基础技术”,如创造力,解决问题之力量跟同理心。当机可以在推行日常工作任务(Infosys曾经把其离岸外包)时让人类相形见绌不时,去琢磨一些电脑难以学习的艺就转换得发意义了。

  4. David Deming of Harvard University has shown that the labour market
    is already rewarding people in occupations that require social
    skills. Since 1980 growth in employment and pay has been fastest in
    professions across the income scale that put a high premium on
    social skills (see chart).

  5. 哈佛大学之David
    Deming表示,劳动力市场已经当奖励那些急需应酬技能的专职。自1980年的话,在漫天收入范围受到,非常重视周旋技能的事情就业及薪酬的加强是无限抢的。

  6. Social skills are important for a wide range of jobs, not just for
    health-care workers, therapists and others who are close to their
    customers. Mr Deming thinks their main value lies in the
    relationship between colleagues: people who can divide up tasks
    quickly and effectively between them form more productive teams. If
    work in future will increasingly be done by contractors and
    freelancers, that capacity for co-operation will become even more
    important. Even geeks have to learn these skills. Ryan Roslansky,
    who oversees LinkedIn’s push into online education, notes that many
    software engineers are taking management and communications courses
    on the site in order to round themselves out.
    7)社交技能对于广大行事还不行重要,不仅仅是针对性卫生保健工作者、治疗师和任何急需接近客户的工作来说。Deming先生觉得它们的要价值在于同事间的涉及:能够迅速灵地分配任务的人们见面形成更有效率的社。如果未来的办事逾多地由于承包商和自由职业者完成,那么合作力量用变得尤其重要。即使极客也使修这些技巧。负责LinkedIn推广在线教育的
    Ryan
    Roslansky注意到博软件工程师在网站上读书管理与关系的科目来晋级自己

Building a better learner

  1. Another skill that increasingly matters in finding and keeping a job
    is the ability to keep learning. When technology is changing in
    unpredictable ways, and jobs are hybridising, humans need to be able
    to pick up new skills. At Infosys, Mr Rajagopalan emphasises
    “learning velocity”—the process of going from a question to a good
    idea in a matter of days or weeks. Eric Schmidt, now executive
    chairman of Alphabet, a tech holding company in which Google is the
    biggest component, has talked of Google’s recruitment focus on
    “learning animals”. Mark Zuckerberg, one of Facebook’s founders,
    sets himself new personal learning goals each year.
    8)另一个在探寻和保全工作吃逐步重要的技巧是继往开来上之力。当技术为不足预测的计转,工作正于转换得混合型时,人类用能够抱新的技艺。在Infosys,Rajagopalan强调“学习进度”——
    在几上要几个周末内从一个题目变更也一个好主意的进程。Alphabet(谷歌是这家技术控股企业之无比要命的部分)的执行主席埃里克•施密特(Eric
    Sc​​hmidt)谈到谷歌的“学习动物”的招贤纳士。
    Facebook的奠基者马克·扎克伯格(Mark
    Zuckerberg)每年都设定好新的私学习目标

  2. An emphasis on learning has long been a hallmark of United
    Technologies (UTC), a conglomerate whose businesses include Pratt &
    Whitney, a maker of aircraft engines, and Otis, a lift manufacturer.
    Since 1996 UTC has been running a programme under which its
    employees can take part-time degrees and have tuition fees of up to
    $12,000 a year paid for them, no strings attached. Employers
    often balk at training staff because they might leave for
    rivals, taking their expensively gained skills with them. But Gail
    Jackson, the firm’s vice-president of human resources, takes a
    different view. “We want people who are intellectually curious,” she
    says. “It is better to train and have them leave than not to train
    and have them stay.”
    9)强调学习一直是合技术(UTC)的表明,联合技术公司的政工包括飞机引擎制造商Pratt&Whitney和电梯制造商Otis。自1996年的话,UTC一直于推行一个计划,根据拖欠计划,员工好抱兼职学位,每年开高臻12000美元的学费,尚未增大条件。雇主经常拒绝造就工作人员,因为她们可能离开去竞争对手那里,把她们花蛮价钱获得的技巧带走。但是,该铺面人力资源副总裁盖尔·杰克逊则持有不同视角。
    “我们意在以智力及闹好奇心的人数,”她说。
    “最好养他们就他们出上离开,好过于不造使吃她们养。”

  3. Such attitudes are becoming more common. When Satya Nadella took
    over as boss of Microsoft in 2014, he drew on the work of Carol
    Dweck, a psychology professor at Stanford University, to push the
    firm’s culture in a new direction. Ms Dweck divides students into
    two camps: those who think that ability is innate and fixed
    (dampening motivation to learn) and those who believe that
    abilities can be improved through learning. This “growth mindset” is
    what the firm is trying to encourage. It has amended its
    performance-review criteria to include an appraisal of how
    employees have learned from others and then applied that knowledge.
    It has also set up an internal portal that integrates Lynda, the
    training provider bought by LinkedIn (which Microsoft itself is now
    buying).
    10)这种态势更宽广。当Satya
    Nadella在2014年接任微软的老板娘位子时,他援引了斯坦福大学心理学教书Carol
    Dweck的写,将企业之学问推向新的动向。
    Dweck女士以生分为两只类似:那些认为能力是天赋的跟定位的(杀的学习动机)和那些相信能力可以通过上提高的人。这种“成长心态”是这家店铺正大力鼓励的。微软修订了其绩效考核标准,加入了针对职工如何从别人那里上学文化并下该文化的评估。它还兴办了一个内部派系,集成了是因为LinkedIn购买的培养提供商Lynda(微软自身现在正购买LinkedIn)。

  4. AT&T, a telecoms and media firm with around 300,000 employees, faces
    two big workforce problems: rapidly changing skills requirements in
    an era of big data and cloud computing, and constant employee
    churn that leaves the company having to fill 50,000 jobs a year.
    Recruiting from outside is difficult, expensive and liable to cause
    ill-feeling among existing staff. The firm’s answer is an ambitious
    plan to reskill its own people.
    11)AT&T是同样贱有大体30万员工的电信及传媒公司,面临两万分劳动力方面的题目:大数目及讲话计算时快速生成之技术要求,以及员工不断的流失,使公司只能每年上50,000个办事空缺。从表招聘是艰难的、昂贵之,并且可能致现有工作人员的非正。这家企业之答案是制订一个理想的计划来又培训好的雇员

  5. Employees each have a career profile that they maintain
    themselves, which contains a record of their skills and training.
    They also have access to a database called “career intelligence”,
    which shows them the jobs on offer within the company, what skills
    they require and how much demand there is for them. The firm has
    developed short courses called nanodegrees with Udacity, the MOOC
    provider, and is also working with universities on developing course
    curriculums. Employees work in their own time to build their skills.
    But AT&T applies both carrot and stick to encourage them, by way
    of generous help with tuition fees (totalling $30m in 2015) for
    those who take courses and negative appraisal ratings for those who
    show no interest.
    12)每个职工都出一个团结在的营生档案,其中蕴含他们之技艺与造就记录。他们还可拜一个名为也“职业智能”的数据库,上面显示公司内提供的做事,他们用什么技巧及针对性他们之艺要求来多少。该商家已经和MOOC提供商Udacity开发了号称也nanodegrees的短期课程,并与高校合作开发各种课程。员工以大团结的业余时间来学技术。但AT&T
    以胡萝卜加大棒来鼓励他们,通过慷慨地资助学费(2015年凡3000万美元)给那些上课的职工,对那些尚未趣味之员工与负面评论等级。

  6. As continued learning becomes a corporate priority, two questions
    arise. First, is it possible for firms to screen candidates and
    employees on the basis of curiosity, or what psychologists call
    “need for cognition”? Getting through university is one very rough
    proxy for
    this sort of foundational skill, which helps explain why
    so many employers stipulate degrees for jobs which on the face
    of it do not require them.
    13)随着连续求学变成商家之事先事项,两单问题出现了。首先,公司是否来或基于好奇心或心理学家所说之“认知需求”来测试面试者和员工?大学毕业是拥有这种基础技术的一个坏简单的代表,这促进讲为何如此多雇主规定做事所需要的学位,尽管表面上看并不需要这些学位。

Curiouser and curiouser

  1. More data-driven approaches are also being tried. Manpower, a
    human-resources consultancy, is currently running trials on an
    app that will score individuals on their “learnability”. Knack,
    a startup, offers a series of apps that are, in effect, gamified
    psychological tests. In Dashi Dash, for example, participants play
    the part of waiters and are asked to take the orders of customers on
    the basis of (often hard to read) expressions. As more and more
    customers arrive, the job of managing the workflow gets tougher.
    Every decision and every minute change in strategy is captured as a
    data point and sent to the cloud, where machine-learning algorithms
    analyse players’ aptitudes against a reference population of 25,000
    people. An ability to read expressions wins points for empathy; a
    decision always to serve customers in the order in which they arrive
    in the game, for example, might serve as an indicator of
    integrity
    . Intellectual curiosity is one of the traits that Knack
    tests for.
    14)更多的多寡驱动方法在让尝试着。
    Manpower是平等下人力资源咨询企业,目前正对一个应用程序进行测试,该应用程序将本着个体的“学习能力”开展评分。
    Knack,一个创业企业,提供了扳平文山会海的应用程序,实际上是游戏化的思测试。例如,在Dashi
    Dash,参与者扮演服务员的角色,并受求在(通常十分麻烦读懂的)表情的底子及接受客户的订单。随着愈来愈多之客户到,管理工作流的行事转移得愈加不便。战略中的各国一个表决以及各级一样分钟转都深受破获为一个数据点,并被发送至云端,其中机械上算法为25,000人的数码吧参考,分析玩家的力量。读表情的力赢得同情这无异于件的分;例如,总是冲客户于耍中至的依次吗她们提供劳动得作诚实的指标。知识及之好奇心吧是Knack测试的特质之一。

  2. The second question is whether it is possible to train people to
    learn. Imaging techniques are helping unlock what goes on in the
    mind of someone who is curious. In a study published in 2014 in
    Neuron, a neuroscience journal, participants were first asked to
    rate their curiosity to learn the answers to various questions.
    Later they were shown answers to those questions, as well as a
    picture of a stranger’s face; finally, they were tested on their
    recall of the answers and given a face-recognition test. Greater
    curiosity led to better retention on both tests; brain scans
    showed increased activity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, a
    reward pathway, and in the hippocampus, a region that matters for
    forming new memories.

  3. 老二独问题是是否好造就人们学习。成像技术正在帮助解锁来好奇心的丁脑子里在怀念什么。在2014年当神经科学杂志Neuron上登出之均等件研究被,参与者首先让求评价他们念书各种题材的答案的好奇心。接着向她们来得了这些题目的答案,以及一个外人的颜的图;最后,给他们进行追思答案的测试,并拓展面部识别测试。更特别之好奇心导致个别只测试中呈现来重新好之记忆力;脑扫描显示在中脑边缘多巴胺系统(大脑奖励途径)和海马体(一种植对形成新记忆有主要意义之区域)中之活性增加。

  4. It is too early to know whether traits such as curiosity can be
    taught. But it is becoming easier to turn individuals into more
    effective learners by making them more aware of their own thought
    processes
    . Hypotheses about what works in education and learning
    have become easier to test because of the rise of online learning.
    MIT has launched an initiative to conduct interdisciplinary
    research into the mechanics of learning and to apply the conclusions
    to its own teaching, both online and offline. It uses its own online
    platforms, including a MOOC co-founded with Harvard University
    called edX, to test ideas. When MOOC participants were required to
    write down their plans for undertaking a course, for example, they
    were 29% more likely to complete the course than a control group who
    did not have to do so.
    16)现在尚免晓得好奇心这样的特质能否叫授课。但是,通过假若人人更意识及祥和之思维过程,将她们变成更使得的学习者变得愈容易。由于在线上的兴起,使得教育及上着于作用的如果变得重爱让测试。麻省理工学院提倡了平起倡议,对学习机制进行超越学科研究,并拿敲定应用为该在线与离线的教学。它采取自己的在线平台,包括和哈佛大学并缔造之一个MOOC——edX来测试想法。例如,当MOOC参与者被求写下他们的课程计划,他们好课程的可能比较没这么做的控制组多来29%。

  5. Information about effective learning strategies can be personalised,
    too. The Open University, a British distance-learning institution,
    already uses dashboards to monitor individual students’ online
    behaviour and performance. Knewton, whose platform captures data on
    10m current American students, recommends personalised content to
    them. Helping people to be more aware of their own thought
    processes
    when they learn makes it more likely they can acquire
    new skills later in life.
    17)有效学习策略的消息为足以个性化。英国长途学习机关“开放大学”已经用仪表板来监督学生个人之在线作为以及表现。
    Knewton,其平台捕获1000万当下美国生的数量,向他们引进个性化内容。帮助人们以习时双重了解自己之思维过程若他们再度发生或于之后的在蒙赢得新的技巧。
    This article appeared in the Special report section of the print
    edition under the headline “Cognition switch”

初稿出处:经济学人网站

译者:安东Anton

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