the way, 冥想是增进此元认知能力的有效途径之一)

怎么着用立陶宛共和国(Republic of Lithuania)语表达:

  • 想出
  • 令人类大相径庭
  • 分外重视
  • 晋升本人
  • 从不增大条件
  • 修订标准
  • 职员和工人流失
  • 胡萝卜加大棒
  • 提倡倡议

心理测试 1


Cognition switch

What employers can do to encourage their workers to retrain

Companies are embracing learning as a core skill
Jan 14th 2017

  1. A STRANGE-LOOKING SMALL room full of vintage furniture—an armchair,
    a chest of drawers, a table—was being built in the middle of
    Infosys’s Palo Alto offices when your correspondent visited in
    November. Tweed jackets hung from a clothes rack; a piano was due to
    be delivered shortly. The structure was rough and unfinished. And
    that, according to Sanjay Rajagopalan, was largely the point.

,是一家总部在印度开普敦的一家中外技术服务公司。这家商店在二〇一三年龄资历源印度500强中列第①7名。Infosys在二十八个国家设有办公室并在印度、United States、中国、澳洲、United Kingdom、加拿大、日本等地存在研究开发宗旨。集团在跨越二十六个国家提供商业咨询、技术、工程及外包服务。

  1. Mr Rajagopalan is head of research and design at the Indian
    business-services firm. He is a disciple of “design thinking”, a
    problem-solving methodology rooted in observation of successful
    innovators. His goal is an ambitious one: to turn a firm that built
    a global offshoring business by following client specifications into
    one that can set the terms of its projects for itself.
  2. Rajagopalan先生是印度经济贸易服务集团的探究和安排性组长。他是“设计思想”的跟随者。“统一筹划思想”是3个消除难题的艺术,植根于成功立异者们的观测。他有贰个志向的靶子:把集团从服从客户专业而树立的海内外离岸外包业务的集团,变成能够为友好设定合同条款的商店。

** 设计思想(Design
Thinking)**是2个以人为本的消除难题方法论,透过从人的供给出发,为各样议题寻求立异消除方案,并创办愈来愈多的可能性。IDEO设计集团老板Tim·Brown曾在《华盛顿圣Louis分校经济贸易评论》定义:“设计思想是以人为本的布置性动感与措施,考虑人的供给、行为,也考量科技(science and technology)或商业的自由化。”

  1. Design thinking emphasises action over planning and encourages its
    followers to look at problems through the eyes of the people
    affected. Around 100,000 Infosys employees have gone through a
    series of workshops on it. The first such workshop sets the
    participants a task: for example, to improve the experience of
    digital photography. That involves moving from the idea of making a
    better camera to considering why people value photographs in the
    first place, as a way of capturing memories. As ideas flow, people
    taking part in the workshops immediately start producing
    prototypes with simple materials like cardboard and paper. “The
    tendency is to plan at length before building,” says Mr Rajagopalan.
    “Our approach is to build, build, build, test and then plan.”


  1. That baffling structure in Palo Alto was another teaching tool.
    Mr Rajagopalan had charged a small team with reimagining the digital
    retail experience. Instead of coming up with yet another
    e-commerce site, they were experimenting with technologies to liven
    up a physical space. (If a weary shopper sat in the chair, say, a
    pot of tea on an adjacent table would automatically brew up.) The
    construction of the shop prototype in Infosys’s offices was being
    documented so that employees could see design thinking in action.

  2. 在帕洛阿尔托这令人猜忌的结构是另一种教学工具。

  3. Infosys is grappling with a vital question: what do people need to
    be good at to succeed in their work? Whatever the job, the answer is
    always going to involve some technical and specific skills, based on
    knowledge and experience of a particular industry. But with design
    thinking, Infosys is focusing on “foundational skills” like
    creativity, problem-solving and empathy. When machines can put
    humans to shame in
    performing the routine job-specific tasks that
    Infosys once took offshore, it makes sense to think about the skills
    that computers find harder to learn.

  4. David Deming of Harvard University has shown that the labour market
    is already rewarding people in occupations that require social
    skills. Since 1980 growth in employment and pay has been fastest in
    professions across the income scale that put a high premium on
    social skills (see chart).

  5. 爱荷华香槟分校大学的戴维德姆ing表示,劳重力市镇一度在奖励那些供给应酬技能的事情。自一九七八年来说,在全部收入范围中,分外重视交际技能的工作就业和薪给的压实是最快的。

  6. Social skills are important for a wide range of jobs, not just for
    health-care workers, therapists and others who are close to their
    customers. Mr Deming thinks their main value lies in the
    relationship between colleagues: people who can divide up tasks
    quickly and effectively between them form more productive teams. If
    work in future will increasingly be done by contractors and
    freelancers, that capacity for co-operation will become even more
    important. Even geeks have to learn these skills. Ryan Roslansky,
    who oversees LinkedIn’s push into online education, notes that many
    software engineers are taking management and communications courses
    on the site in order to round themselves out.

Building a better learner

  1. Another skill that increasingly matters in finding and keeping a job
    is the ability to keep learning. When technology is changing in
    unpredictable ways, and jobs are hybridising, humans need to be able
    to pick up new skills. At Infosys, Mr Rajagopalan emphasises
    “learning velocity”—the process of going from a question to a good
    idea in a matter of days or weeks. Eric Schmidt, now executive
    chairman of Alphabet, a tech holding company in which Google is the
    biggest component, has talked of Google’s recruitment focus on
    “learning animals”. Mark Zuckerberg, one of Facebook’s founders,
    sets himself new personal learning goals each year.

  2. An emphasis on learning has long been a hallmark of United
    Technologies (UTC), a conglomerate whose businesses include Pratt &
    Whitney, a maker of aircraft engines, and Otis, a lift manufacturer.
    Since 1996 UTC has been running a programme under which its
    employees can take part-time degrees and have tuition fees of up to
    $12,000 a year paid for them, no strings attached. Employers
    often balk at training staff because they might leave for
    rivals, taking their expensively gained skills with them. But Gail
    Jackson, the firm’s vice-president of human resources, takes a
    different view. “We want people who are intellectually curious,” she
    says. “It is better to train and have them leave than not to train
    and have them stay.”

  3. Such attitudes are becoming more common. When Satya Nadella took
    over as boss of Microsoft in 2014, he drew on the work of Carol
    Dweck, a psychology professor at Stanford University, to push the
    firm’s culture in a new direction. Ms Dweck divides students into
    two camps: those who think that ability is innate and fixed
    (dampening motivation to learn) and those who believe that
    abilities can be improved through learning. This “growth mindset” is
    what the firm is trying to encourage. It has amended its
    performance-review criteria to include an appraisal of how
    employees have learned from others and then applied that knowledge.
    It has also set up an internal portal that integrates Lynda, the
    training provider bought by LinkedIn (which Microsoft itself is now

  4. AT&T, a telecoms and media firm with around 300,000 employees, faces
    two big workforce problems: rapidly changing skills requirements in
    an era of big data and cloud computing, and constant employee
    churn that leaves the company having to fill 50,000 jobs a year.
    Recruiting from outside is difficult, expensive and liable to cause
    ill-feeling among existing staff. The firm’s answer is an ambitious
    plan to reskill its own people.

  5. Employees each have a career profile that they maintain
    themselves, which contains a record of their skills and training.
    They also have access to a database called “career intelligence”,
    which shows them the jobs on offer within the company, what skills
    they require and how much demand there is for them. The firm has
    developed short courses called nanodegrees with Udacity, the MOOC
    provider, and is also working with universities on developing course
    curriculums. Employees work in their own time to build their skills.
    But AT&T applies both carrot and stick to encourage them, by way
    of generous help with tuition fees (totalling $30m in 2015) for
    those who take courses and negative appraisal ratings for those who
    show no interest.

  6. As continued learning becomes a corporate priority, two questions
    arise. First, is it possible for firms to screen candidates and
    employees on the basis of curiosity, or what psychologists call
    “need for cognition”? Getting through university is one very rough
    proxy for
    this sort of foundational skill, which helps explain why
    so many employers stipulate degrees for jobs which on the face
    of it do not require them.

Curiouser and curiouser

  1. More data-driven approaches are also being tried. Manpower, a
    human-resources consultancy, is currently running trials on an
    app that will score individuals on their “learnability”. Knack,
    a startup, offers a series of apps that are, in effect, gamified
    psychological tests. In Dashi Dash, for example, participants play
    the part of waiters and are asked to take the orders of customers on
    the basis of (often hard to read) expressions. As more and more
    customers arrive, the job of managing the workflow gets tougher.
    Every decision and every minute change in strategy is captured as a
    data point and sent to the cloud, where machine-learning algorithms
    analyse players’ aptitudes against a reference population of 25,000
    people. An ability to read expressions wins points for empathy; a
    decision always to serve customers in the order in which they arrive
    in the game, for example, might serve as an indicator of
    . Intellectual curiosity is one of the traits that Knack
    tests for.

  2. The second question is whether it is possible to train people to
    learn. Imaging techniques are helping unlock what goes on in the
    mind of someone who is curious. In a study published in 2014 in
    Neuron, a neuroscience journal, participants were first asked to
    rate their curiosity to learn the answers to various questions.
    Later they were shown answers to those questions, as well as a
    picture of a stranger’s face; finally, they were tested on their
    recall of the answers and given a face-recognition test. Greater
    curiosity led to better retention on both tests; brain scans
    showed increased activity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, a
    reward pathway, and in the hippocampus, a region that matters for
    forming new memories.

  3. 首个难点是是还是不是能够作育人们学习。成像技术正在帮助解锁有好奇心的人脑子里在想怎么样。在2016年在神经科学杂志Neuron上公布的一项切磋中,参预者首先被供给评价他们念书各类难题的答案的好奇心。接着向他们来得了这么些题材的答案,以及三个第1者的脸的图样;最终,给她们进行回想答案的测试,并展开面部识别测试。更大的好奇心导致三个测试中展现出更好的记忆力;脑扫描突显在中脑边缘多巴胺系统(大脑奖励途径)和海马体(一种对形成新记念有首要意义的区域)中的活性增加。

  4. It is too early to know whether traits such as curiosity can be
    taught. But it is becoming easier to turn individuals into more
    effective learners by making them more aware of their own thought
    . Hypotheses about what works in education and learning
    have become easier to test because of the rise of online learning.
    MIT has launched an initiative to conduct interdisciplinary
    research into the mechanics of learning and to apply the conclusions
    to its own teaching, both online and offline. It uses its own online
    platforms, including a MOOC co-founded with Harvard University
    called edX, to test ideas. When MOOC participants were required to
    write down their plans for undertaking a course, for example, they
    were 29% more likely to complete the course than a control group who
    did not have to do so.

  5. Information about effective learning strategies can be personalised,
    too. The Open University, a British distance-learning institution,
    already uses dashboards to monitor individual students’ online
    behaviour and performance. Knewton, whose platform captures data on
    10m current American students, recommends personalised content to
    them. Helping people to be more aware of their own thought
    when they learn makes it more likely they can acquire
    new skills later in life.
    17)有效学习策略的新闻也能够特性化。United Kingdom远程学习机关“开放大学”已经接纳仪表板来监督学生个人的在线作为和显示。
    Knewton,其平台捕获一千万脚下United States学生的数码,向他们引进性格化内容。支持人们在上学时更领悟本人的思维进程使她们更有恐怕在此后的生活中赢得新的技术。
    This article appeared in the Special report section of the print
    edition under the headline “Cognition switch”




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